Plant profiles > Hebe
Family : Plantaginaceae
When one considers the plethora of information that has been produced about this popular genus of shrubs, it is hard to see what more needs to be written. However, in my opinion, there is still much to be said regarding Hebe's place in gardens. As with several other native genera (of which Pittosporum is perhaps the best example), a great deal of interest has been expressed in artificial hybrids and a limited range of species; yet many beautiful species are ignored by gardeners and landscapers.
It also seems to me that there is a lack of knowledge regarding the limitations of many species/varieties in certain climates; especially the warm, humid north, where inappropriate varieties are commonly peddled by garden centres and nurseries.
In his fine book on the cultivation of hebes1, Lawrie Metcalf gives a very good explanation of the reasons that we can misinterpret the environments that plants occupy within nature. For example, he recounts that although a plant may inhabit a moist climate, the effects of wind and topography create an entirely different set of conditions than one may surmise (on the basis of straight geography).
This is a particularly salient point for northern species of Hebe, many of which grow in exposed situations on sloping ground (like cliffs and outcrops) - conditions that are not particularly analagous with many positions in the garden. Accordingly, plants like Hebe bishopiana and H. obtusata (which grow in Auckland's Waitakere Ranges) generally require careful placement within gardens just 10 or 20km away from their natural homes - due largely to humidity and a lack of air movement.
So, as Lawrie Metcalf has pointed out, the cultivation of this beautiful genus of shrubs is best accompanied with some knowledge of the kinds of places that they are adapted to. In my opinion, the key to growing many hebes successfully is providing some level of resistance. Wind is a major editing factor in many of the habitats in which Hebe has evolved, as is the influence of salt. Likewise, cold weather is a necessary limitation for a significant number of (mostly southern) Hebe spp.
The observations that are noted above are obviously not applicable to all members of Hebe, as there is a great range of species - including a few that grow in reasonably sheltered forest conditions. However, I wish to make the point that a significant proportion of hebes have evolved towards open, exposed habitats - and gardeners should position plants with this knowledge in mind, to achieve the best results in the long term.
Of the many species that we have trialled in Auckland, we have been most impressed by Hebe parviflora, H. stenophylla, H. diosmifolia, H. pubescens ssp. sejuncta and H. treadwellii. One of our main criteria for assessing their merit is the ability of these species to retain a dense habit in our mild climate - especially where grown in close proximity to other plants.
Hebes put on some of the most spectacular flowering displays in the New Zealand flora. These are epicentres of insect activity, and constitute an important source of nectar and pollen for many of our native insect species (particularly native bees and flies - such as the small bee pictured above, on Hebe parviflora, which I suspect is a member of the genus, Lasioglossum). This ecological service is a worthwhile incentive for cultivating our hebes, and should be borne in mind by anyone wishing to encourage wildlife in their gardens.
Hebe's name befits the beauty of so many of its species; as it is named after the Greek goddess of youth, Hebe, who was a daughter of Zeus. Whether the genus retains this title into the future is a subject of taxonomic debate, as a number of eminent botanists favour returning all of our species into the widespread genus, Veronica, to which they were originally assigned.
Regardless of the 'correct' stance on this matter, I personally favour the retention of Hebe, for the same reasons as the authors of the most comprehensive monograph on the genus2. Within that work, M. Bayly and A. Kellow, contend that lumping all species back into a very large, wide-ranging genus, Veronica, would "create a classification that is information-poor, obscuring obvious diversity and some clear relationships."
We don't readily think of Māori having actively cultivated plants for their ornamental value in pre-European times. Indeed, I would contend that Eurocentric cultures like ours don't tend to associate amenity gardening with indigenous societies in general3. However, there is strong evidence that some plants were grown (and moved around the country) on account of their beauty. Of these, kakabeak (Clianthus spp.) is the most high-profile example, whilst the subject of this profile, Hebe speciosa, is another interesting case in point.
Recent genetic studies have shown that it is probable that the few isolated occurrences of H. speciosa from south of Auckland are derived from translocation of material from the population on the south side of Hokianga Harbour4 (where these images were taken).
Hebe speciosa continues to be shifted around, on a more accelerated level, as it has gained popularity as a garden plant over the last forty years - although, as with other plants, many specimens that are sold as this species are in fact hybrids. The latter point is unsurprising, for H. speciosa has been utilised extensively in the breeding of new cultivars of Hebe5.
Titirangi is a prime example of a hebe that is frequently misunderstood, with respect to its cultivation requirements. Coming from predominantly open habitats on the west coast of the North Island, H. speciosa is a product of its maritime environment, where it is subjected to almost continual air movement, often savage winds, and a heavy dosage of salt. When grown in sheltered inland conditions, the leaves frequently exhibit spotting and plants assume an ungainly growth form.
In my opinion, titirangi is best suited to gardens near the coast, where similar conditions prevail to those encountered in its natural habitats (and frosts are not an issue). In such situations, it is a fine garden plant, that produces impressive magenta flowerheads above its thick, glossy foliage.
When observing wild populations of this species at South Head, Hokianga, I was interested to see it growing in thick association with oioi (Apodasmia similis) and coastal flax (Phormium cookianum), whereas further down the coastline (at Maunganui Bluff) it also grew on the forest fringe and bare rocky slopes.
Titirangi is an endangered species, with a threat ranking of 'Nationally Vulnerable'. It has a sporadic distribution, occurring at a small number of sites on the North Island's west coast (from the Hokianga Harbour to Mokau), and one outlier population in the Marlborough Sounds - although, as mentioned above, the populations south of Auckland are not considered natural. It was discovered to Western Science in the 1830s by the early botanist, Richard Cunningham, who encountered it on the southern side of the Hokianga Harbour.
- Hebes : a guide to species, hybrids and allied genera (Metcalf, L. 2006. Portland, Oregon : Timber Press). The points referred to herein are from pages 52-53.
- An Illustrated Guide to New Zealand Hebes. Bayly, M. & Kellow, A. 2006, Te Papa Press, Wellington).
- I am aware that such a statement has an anecdotal basis to it. However, this is not an unreasonable assertion, when one considers the representation of many indigenous cultures within books, museums and other cultural media.
- As stated on the New Zealand Plant Conservation Network's authoritative website, www.nzpcn.org.nz.
- As noted within 'Hebes : a guide to species, hybrids and allied genera' (Metcalf, L. 2006. Portland, Oregon : Timber Press).